Coaxial cables often referred to as “coax” cables, are a kind of heavy-duty electrical wire that is used in a number of radiofrequency (RF) data transmission applications. Coaxial cables are also known as coaxial cable connectors.
These cables are all about us, and have been since the beginning of the twentieth century, and serve a variety of functions.
People’s homes and workplaces are filled with them because they have significant uses in the telephone, cable, and internet industries, making them ubiquitous.
Coax cable technology is always changing, as is the way they are used.
As a result, it may be difficult to recall the many types of coax cable that are available.
There are a plethora of uses for these cables, which is especially impressive when you consider their flexibility.
We’ve listed the most common kinds of coax cables, as well as their applications, in the section below. Before we go any further, let’s define what a coaxial wire is.
How to SPLIT COAXIAL CABLE
What Exactly Is a Coaxial Cable?
As you may be aware, the function of coaxial cables is to transfer electrical signals from one device, component, or system to another, and this is where the term “coaxial” comes from.
Because of their hefty structure, coax cables are easily distinguished from other types of cables.
In addition, this makes them one of the most durable kinds of cables used in radio frequency transmission operations, making them one of the most widely used cables in the world.
The term “coaxial” is derived from the fact that the cable’s two conductors share the same axis.
What exactly is RG cable?
Coaxial cable is available in a variety of gauges and impedances, with each kind having its own characteristics.
The gauge of a cable refers to its thickness and is determined by the radio guide measurement, often known as the RG number.
The central conductor core becomes smaller as the RG number of the central conductor core increases.
Is there a visual representation of a Coaxial Cable?
As a result of the thick, spherical form of the inner insulation layer of coaxial cable, it is easily distinguished from other cables.
Its size distinguishes it from other kinds of cable, such as twisted pair or Ethernet cable, which have a similar appearance.
The most common coaxial cable diameters are RG-6, RG-11, and RG-59 — some of the variations in size are shown in the picture below, while others are not.
What is the operation of coaxial cables?
Coaxial cables are a popular option because their shielded construction enables the center conductor to transfer data rapidly while being safe from damage and interference.
Coaxial cables are also inexpensive.
Coaxial cables are mostly composed of four distinct layers, which are as follows:
1. A central conductor, which is often a copper wire, via which data and visual signals are sent.
2. A dielectric plastic insulator is used to protect the copper wire from damage.
3. A copper braided mesh is then used to assist protect the wire from electromagnetic interference (EMI) (EMI)
4. The exterior layer is a protective layer made of plastic that shields the interior layers from harm.
Coaxial cable operates by transmitting data via the center conductor, while the shielding layers around it prevent signal loss (also known as attenuation loss) and assist to minimize electromagnetic interference (EMI).
The first layer, referred to as the dielectric, serves to provide a space between the core conductor and the outer layers, as well as to provide some insulation between them.
The following layers, which are collectively referred to as the shield, are responsible for keeping electrical impulses and radio broadcasts at bay.
As illustrated in the picture below, there are many layers to a coaxial wire.
When it comes to coaxial cable transmission speed, what can you expect?
Coaxial cables have a transmission speed of 10Mbps (megabits per second) and have an 80-fold increase in transmission capacity over twisted pair lines.
The benefits and drawbacks of coaxial cable Inexpensive
- Simple to wire and install
- Simple to expand
- Excellent EMI resistance
- the capacity of up to 10Mbps
Another advantage of coaxial cable is that the electromagnetic field that carries the signal resides solely between the inner and outer conductors.
This implies that, unlike other kinds of transmission lines, a coaxial cable may be placed close to metal objects without losing power.
Coaxial Cable Disadvantages
The major drawback of utilizing coaxial cable is that a single cable failure may bring a network to a halt.
The Composition of a Coaxial Cable
The main reason for the success of coax cable is the insulated and layered architecture that it employs to transmit signals.
Consider a standard electrical cable, which has one or more wires that are responsible for the transmission of electrical currents inside it.
A coax cable, on the other hand, is used to transmit radio frequency (RF) signals, which express themselves as transverse electromagnetic waves.
An inner conductor cable composed of copper is included inside a coaxial cable.
A lightweight plastic dielectric coating or an insulating substance is used to protect this cable from damage.
This is further protected by a lightweight braided mesh that surrounds the insulator.
Furthermore, the whole set of layers is protected by an exterior insulating jacket that serves as a protective barrier.
Aside from that, it is precisely this design that enables a coax cable to function effectively in the absence of interference from external electromagnetic fields.
Not only that but environmental stresses are also prevented from occurring.
The end product is a transmission line that is very robust and capable of transmitting signals at high frequencies with little loss.
Transmission speeds of up to 10 megabits per second are possible using a coax cable.
The transmission capacity of these cables is likewise eight times more than that of twisted-pair cables.
The various components of a coaxial cable are described in more detail below.
➡️ The center conductor is typically constructed of copper-clad steel.
➡️ In this kind of bond, moisture migration is prevented by the use of a clean stripping polymer in the center conductor.
➡️Dielectric: Made of polyethylene for a closed-cell foam with a high vapor pressure (VP).
➡️ A shield is formed by bonding an aluminum-polymer-aluminum tape to the dielectric core, which serves as the first outside conductor.
➡️ An aluminum-polymer-aluminum tape is utilized in the fabrication of the second outer conductor of tri-shields and quad-shields as a second outer conductor. This makes it easier to isolate the high-frequency shield both before and after flexure.
➡️ The third outside conductor is used in the same way as the second.
➡️ An additional 34/36 AWG aluminum braid is utilized in the fabrication of quad-shields in environments with strong RF noise to assist in the isolation of the lower frequency shield.
➡️ Protectant: The protectant must be corrosion resistant in order to be effective.
➡️ Indoor and aerial applications: The use of a non-drip substance prevents moisture migration.
➡️ Underground: A flowing substance that may be used to patch cracks in the jacket’s outer layer.
➡️ Outer jacket: Constructed of either polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride (PVC), the outer jacket protects the conductor core during and after installation.
➡️ Integration messenger: A support component composed of galvanized carbon steel wire that is attached to the cable by means of a detachable web.
Coaxial Cables are Available in a Variety of Configurations
If you’re anything like us, you’re definitely spending a lot more time at home than you were before.
That often indicates that you’re dusting off your old televisions and attempting to bring them back to life––or that you already have an entertainment setup in your home.
Regardless, you must make certain that your cables, as well as your gadgets, are in proper working order.
A coaxial cable is one of the most frequent types of cable that you’ll discover behind your television. It is often a circular cable with a copper pin at the tip that is quite strong and robust.
An additional threaded cap on the tip enables you to screw the cable into your television or satellite receiver.
In other words, you’re going to require a coaxial cable at some point in your system configuration.
Continue reading to find out more about the various kinds of coaxial cables that are available.
An RG6 coaxial cable is the cable of choice for many professional television installers when installing satellite television systems.
In order to get the work done correctly the first time, and RG6 is the best option available.
Some advantages of RG6 cables over their coaxial equivalents may be attributed to the following factors:
First and foremost, the cable is a heavy-duty cable that may be used in any situation.
This larger core offers a stronger and more stable connection for your entertainment requirements, resulting in a more enjoyable viewing experience.
Additionally, RG6 cables feature stronger insulation and higher-quality shielding than other types of cables.
Both of these factors contribute to the reduction of external interference (or noise) and the protection of the core from harm.
The fact that RG6 cables are thicker than other cables means that they are less flexible, therefore it’s essential not to purchase more than you need since the materials used to make them are less flexible.
The RG59 coaxial cable is another kind of popular coaxial cable.
Despite the fact that this cable is quite similar to the RG6, there are some significant variances.
First and foremost, let us discuss the many uses of an RG59.
You can definitely connect your television to a satellite box using an RG59 cable, which is particularly useful if you’re connecting an older television.
RG59 cables, on the other hand, are frequently used to link CCTV systems.
When you’re at a brick-and-mortar shop and you see cameras both inside and outside the building, it’s probable that they’re utilizing RG59s to connect to the internet.
There are two primary reasons why an RG59 cable is preferable for CCTV systems as compared to conventional television configurations.
For starters, the shielding, insulation, and core of the RG59 cable are all smaller than those of an RG6, making it less vulnerable to interference.
Second, since all of the materials are thinner, an RG59 cable has much more flexibility than its RG6 counterpart.
When installing CCTV systems, installers prefer to work with a more flexible wire since they frequently have little space to work with.
After hearing so much about earlier televisions, you’re undoubtedly wondering how coaxial cables have evolved in tandem with technological advancements in televisions.
There’s a relatively new cable, the RG11, that certain businesses are increasingly relying on, and it’s becoming more popular.
The design is similar to that of RG6 and RG59 cables; however, the major distinction is that RG11 cables are better for high definition (HD) and longer distances than the other two types of cables.
It was not usual to have high-definition television back when coaxial cables were first introduced, and even as HD became more popular, it was not easily accessible to the general public.
RG11 cables, on the other hand, offer one benefit over the other two: they maintain a steady connection over longer distances.
Both RG6 and RG59 cables have deterioration in connection after 100 feet, while an RG11 cable may often be used for a further 100 feet without deterioration.
4. Hard-Line Coaxial Cable (also known as hard-line coaxial cable)
Hard-line coaxial cables, the most frequently used kind of coaxial cable, are used in applications that require a significant amount of signal power.
These cables typically have a thickness ranging from 0.5 inches to 1.75 inches, which results in a wider diameter than other kinds of coaxial cable in most cases.
They have a central conductor constructed of a variety of metals like silver, copper, aluminum, or steel, among others.
Some hard-line cables are equipped with pressurized nitrogen to prevent moisture infiltration and arcing during installation.
Coaxial cables with a hard line are usually utilized in the transmission of cable television signals. One of these cables has the capability of transmitting hundreds of cable television channels at the same time.
Furthermore, they are used in the construction of telephone and internet connections.
If your office or apartment building is of moderate size, a hardline coaxial cable may be relied upon to provide internet and telephone connection to the whole building.
5. The fifth cable is a triaxial cable.
The tri-axial coaxial cable (also known as “Triax”) is distinguished by the addition of an extra shield in the form of a copper braid to the main conductor.
This braid is grounded, and as a result, it shields the inner conductive components of the cable from capacitive field noise and ground loop current.
Furthermore, since the triaxial cable has a larger bandwidth and better interference rejection, it is well suited for usage in situations where strong electromagnetic forces may interfere with signal transmission.
Furthermore, it effectively lowers cable loading as well as cable losses on the network.
Triaxial cable is most frequently seen in the context of cable television.
It is also used to link cameras to their central processing unit (CCU) (camera control unit).
6. Semi-rigid coaxial cable is the sixth kind of cable.
The semi-rigid coaxial cable, as the name implies, is less flexible than the flexible coaxial cable.
This is owing to the fact that its shield is usually constructed of tougher metal than other weapons.
You can see why such cables are usually chosen in circumstances where the wire can be placed straight rather than requiring it to be curled or bent when taking all of this into account. The flexing and reshaping of this kind of cable are not possible once it has been originally created.
7. Coaxial Cable with a Flexible Coil
When compared to the semi-rigid coaxial cable, the flexible coaxial wire may be bent or moved to meet the needs of the situation, as implied by its name.
Flexible coaxial cables are available in a variety of lengths and diameters.
Such cables have an inner conductor made of metal, which is surrounded by a dielectric composed of a flexible polymer, which acts as a dielectric.
An additional layer of protection is provided by an external jacket.
It is recommended that you utilize flexible coaxial cable in circumstances where you may need to enhance the cable’s flexibility.
Alternatively, you may convert from a metal core conductor to a solid-wire stranded design if this is the case.
Meanwhile, a dielectric made of polyethylene foam (PE foam) may be used in place of the current polymer dielectric.
Coaxial cables that are flexible in nature are most frequently seen in applications involving cable television or home video equipment.
8. Coaxial Cable with Formable Ends
The formable coaxial cable, not to be mistaken with the flexible coaxial cable, is a suitable alternative to semi-rigid coax cables and should not be confused with the flexible coaxial cable.
These cables feature a strong outer wrapping composed of flexible metal, rather than rigid copper, to protect them from damage.
It is possible to mold this metal by hand (thus the name) to meet the specific requirements of the scenario.
Formable coax is sometimes used in prototype applications to layout cable placement designs and to plan cable placement designs.
Once the design has been established, it is modified to make use of the semi-rigid coaxial wire.
9. Rigid Coaxial Cable (Rigid Coaxial Cable)
The rigid coaxial cable, which is sometimes known as hard-line, is really a misnomer since it is very flexible.
Because stiff coaxial cables are often manufactured and marketed in fixed-length flanged straight pieces, the reason for this is that they are not flexible.
In order to connect transmission line sections together, 45-degree or 90-degree elbows may be utilized, depending on the circumstances and the requirements.
In terms of actual use, rigid line coaxial cable is usually utilized inside for a variety of applications.
They are particularly well suited for high-capacity connections in FM and television broadcasting systems.
The structure of a rigid coaxial cable includes an inner conductor made of copper, with an exterior conductor made of aluminum or copper as the secondary conductor.
10. Twinaxial Cable
The twinaxial cable is similar to the coaxial cable, however, it differs in that it contains two separate conductor wires in its core, as opposed to one in the coaxial cable (instead of one).
Twinaxial cables provide lower cable loss and provide more effective shielding against capacitive fields and ground loops than singleaxial cables.
Twinaxial cables are also capable of reducing low-frequency magnetic noise, which may be attributed to them.
Twinaxial cables are the best choice for low-frequency video and digital applications because of their flexibility.
Battle Between RG 6 and RG 59
Choosing between RG 6 and RG 59 for your installation may be difficult.
You may have a slew of questions right now about what kind of Coaxial Cable you should buy and how to go about finding the answers.
Which is better, RG-59 or RG-6 for you?
Whether you need Quad shielding is up to you. What do you think about braiding?
Is it necessary to purchase Plenum Rated cable?
Or do you want a direct burial?
There is a seemingly infinite number of choices, and choosing the incorrect kind of coax may result in you spending much more money than you had anticipated on your project.
In this thorough essay, we’ll go through the fundamentals of coaxial cable so that you’ll know exactly what you’re looking for.
Applications for RG 6 versus RG 59
RG 6 is suitable for applications such as CATV, satellite, TV antenna, and broadband internet connections.
For the vast majority of CCTV systems and other analog video transmissions, RG 59 is preferable to RG 6.
What you really need to think about is the frequency ratings of the equipment you’re using.
If your equipment operates at higher frequencies (i.e., more than 50 MHz), you should consider using RG 6.
You’ll want to utilize RG 59 if your frequencies are lower than those specified above.
RG 59 (In-Depth)
RG59 cable has been in use for a very long period of time.
This kind of cable used to be the most popular type of cable used for cable TV connections, and it is still quite frequently seen in older houses and business buildings.
However, because of a variety of contemporary signal needs, this cable has been less common in recent years.
Because RG 59 has a smaller conductor than RG 6, it cannot attain the same signal quality as RG 6.
RG 59 has a smaller conductor than RG 6.
Because of the way its shielding is constructed, it is not particularly effective at keeping Gigahertz-level signals contained inside the conductor. RG 59 is thus unlikely to be an excellent option for your television or internet connection.
The braided shielding in RG 59 was intended to withstand waveforms of megahertz interference that were (relatively) lengthy in duration.
As a result, it is suitable for lower frequency transmissions (anything under about 50 MHz). When it comes to video signals, it is most frequently utilized for composite or component video streams (often in the mini-coax variety).
A closed-circuit television (CCTV) video surveillance system, for example, is an excellent option for this reason.
If you purchase “Siamese coaxial wire,” you may even make your installation process a lot simpler.
This cable is made up of two RG 59 cables that have been joined together with a 2C power cable.
It is possible to run the power and video for your security cameras over the same kind of cable, reducing the installation time by more than half when utilizing this sort of cable.
RG 6 (In-Depth)
Satellite and internet signals operate at higher frequencies than traditional analog video, and when television broadcasts switched from analog to digital, and cable companies began to switch to digital, the higher frequencies necessitated the development of a more efficient coaxial cable to carry the signals more efficiently.
RG6 cable was created specifically to meet these specifications.
It features a bigger conductor, which results in much-improved signal quality.
In addition, the dielectric insulation was increased in thickness. RG 6 is also constructed with a different kind of shielding, which enables it to more efficiently handle signals at the GHz frequency range.
While many RG 59 cables have a foil shield in addition to the braid, RG 6 cables made the inclusion of a foil shield a requirement.
A looser weave (e.g., 60 percent vs the 90 percent or more of RG59 cables) was initially used, although a high-percentage braid has become common in many RG6 cables as well.
Other Considerations When Purchasing Coaxial Cable
Noise interference is prevented from interfering with your signal, and therefore the quality of your signal is preserved when shielding is used.
Coaxial cables are typically shielded with one of two kinds of materials: braid or foil.
The majority of coaxial cables have both of these features (although some RG 59 cables still use single shielding).
In general, the more shielding you have, the better your cable will function, particularly over longer distances.
However, the kind of things that the shields protect varies from one another.
Foil shielding is usually comprised of an aluminum or mylar foil that is attached to the dielectric and placed underneath a metal braid to provide protection.
A highly effective method of guarding against high-frequency electromagnetic interference is to use aluminum foil (EMF).
Braided shielding is a collection of numerous tiny wire strands that are braided around the exterior of a dielectric (and/or foil) to provide electrical resistance.
When it comes to lower-frequency interference, the braid is quite effective.
Copper braid is used in the construction of RG 59 cable, while copper or aluminum braid may be used in the construction of RG 6.
There are “quad shielded” cables available, which contain an additional layer of foil and braid shielding and may provide greater protection than standard cables.
Newer coaxial cables, on the other hand, may utilize a 95 percent braid to perform better while without requiring the additional size and weight of quad shielded cables.
There is a loss of signal
A small amount of signal loss occurs throughout the length of any cable, despite the fact that shielding methods prevent extraneous signals from interfering with our transmissions.
As an example, consider a 100-foot length of wire with signal loss (attenuation) measured in dB. Just keep in mind that the longer your cable runs, the greater the likelihood of signal loss you may encounter.
Because of this, it is recommended to limit the duration of your installations to a bare minimum.
Plenum Rating is a measure of how much space is available in a room.
Plenum spaces are the open areas above or below the floor that are utilized for air circulation and are often found above or below the ceiling.
The importance of these areas for air circulation in commercial buildings cannot be overstated; nevertheless, due to the high oxygen concentration and absence of fire barriers in these spaces, they may create significant difficulties if there is a fire.
Using untreated cables in plenum spaces may cause a fire to spread rapidly to other parts of the building, as well as disseminate toxic smoke throughout the whole structure.
Plenum cables are coated with flame-retardant and constructed of specific polymers that do not emit hazardous gasses or smoke nearly as much as other plastics, thus assisting in the prevention of this issue from occurring. Any cable that is routed through plenum areas must be rated for use in plenum spaces.
Coax for Direct Burial in the Ground and in the Open
If you’re running cable outdoors, you’ll want to make sure it has extra protection from the environment and the weather.
Outdoor cable has been specifically engineered to withstand the harsh conditions of the outdoors.
They are available with a PE (polyethylene) jacket or a PVC jacket that has been UV treated.
Abrasion and cutting are no match for the outdoor certified jacket, which makes this cable highly resistant to severe cold and dampness, as well as chemicals and other substances.
In the case of coaxial cables, moisture becomes an even greater hindrance during the installation.
Water and pollutants may penetrate the cable, corroding its shielding and conductor if you do not use additional moisture protection in your cable.
It has the same special PE jacket as outdoor coax, but it also contains a gel-like material in the jacket that prevents water and moisture from corroding the conductor and causing signal degradation or degradation.
What Makes Sewell Direct a Superior Value Provider
While many businesses sell RG6 and RG59, Sewell Direct makes it simple to communicate with your setup and to get technical assistance.
Sewell can help you with everything from setting up a security system to just connecting your cable modem to your television.
We have professionals who have worked as installers and technicians in the field who are ready to answer any questions you may have about the sector.
We also supervise the manufacture of our cables (something that many merchants are unable to do), which allows us to keep prices low while maintaining excellent quality.
If cost or function is the most essential considerations for you, you should choose the solution that is most appropriate for you.
Take a look at some of our most popular RG59 and RG6 cables, or get in touch with us!
Our Final Thoughts
The popularity of coax cables has endured not just because of their longevity and strength, but also because of a number of other reasons.
They are reasonably priced and simple to install. Furthermore, it is simple to make them larger in size.
Not to mention its excellent EMI resistance and 10Mbps data transmission capability.
We hope that our explanation of the many types of coax cable has been informative.
We wish you the best of success as you expand your network!
Frequently Ask Questions
In what ways do coaxial cables vary from one another?
It is possible to divide coaxial cables into two types: those with an impedance of 75 Ohm (or ohm) and those with an impedance of 50 Ohm.
In most cases, television signals are sent using 75 Ohm cables, while data and wireless communications are often transmitted using 50 Ohm cables.
In order to access the Internet, what kind of coax cable is used?
In addition to having a thicker gauge, RG6 cable includes insulation and shielding that are optimized for high-bandwidth, high-frequency applications such as the Internet, cable television, and satellite television transmissions.
The RG6 cable is the ideal choice if you aren’t sure which kind of cable to purchase.
What does a coaxial cable look like with a diagram?
Generally speaking, a coaxial cable is a kind of cable that contains an inner conductor that is enclosed by an insulating layer and shielded by an electrically conductive shielding.
Many of them are also equipped with an insulated outer jacket.
The construction of a common cable is shown in the figure to the right.
The center conductor is the conduit via which the electrical signal travels.